Pasqua o pasquetta? La Pasqua, da tramonto a tramonto

Perché in Italia il Lunedì dell’angelo è festivo e non invece il Venerdì Santo come in tante altre nazioni di tradizione cristiana? I giorni non lavorativi in occasione di festività religiose, come noto, sono concordati tra Chiesa e Stato (e sono: Epifania, Lunedì dell’Angelo, Assunzione, Ognissanti, Immacolata Concezione, Natale e Santo Stefano). Perché dunque la chiesa italiana, a differenza di tante altre chiese nazionali, chiese nel dopo guerra questo giorno – lunedì di Pasqua – come non lavorativo, pur non essendo un giorno liturgico fondamentale? Non sarebbe stato più sensato chiedere il Venerdì Santo, appunto, o la Pentecoste, o il Corpus Domini?

Il motivo della scelta ha a che fare più con la storia della liturgia che con il pensiero di un giorno da scampagnate e ci offre l’occasione di riscoprire cose belle.

Il senso della recente riforma liturgica: Pasqua in tre giorni

Quando il papa Pio XII mise mano alla grande riforma della Settimana Santa operò un cambiamento ispirato e profondo. A distanza di tanti anni, la nuova e antica scansione dei riti pasquali, completata da Paolo VI nel 1969, ancora non è entrata nel respiro popolare.

Nel rito precedente infatti il Sacro Triduo era inteso come “ultimi tre giorni della Quaresima” (giovedì, venerdì e sabato) e lasciava addirittura fuori la domenica di Pasqua. Questa invece rientrava nel secondo triduo, Pasquale che si allungava fino al martedì. Due tridui distinti con molti vuoti, riempiti dall’esuberante devozione popolare (i “giri”, la via crucis, lavarsi gli occhi al sabato mattina).

Il rito attuale invece prevede un Triduo unico, e conta da tramonto a tramonto: da giovedì sera a sabato sera, dalla cena alla risurrezione, celebrando in unità la Passione e la Risurrezione del Signore. In un certo senso è il medesimo mistero pasquale che si celebra in tre atti, la stessa stanza preziosa percepita da tra angolature differenti.

Da tramonto a tramonto

Così celebriamo:

  • dal tramonto del giovedì al tramonto del venerdì: l’amore consegnato, la Pasqua rituale antica, riscritta dal Cristo nell’ultima cena.
  • dal tramonto (anticipato nell’ecclissi) del venerdì fino al tramonto del sabato: la comunione con la morte e con tutti i defunti nella Pasqua escatologica.
  • dal tramonto del sabato al tramonto della domenica: la Pasqua della chiesa che nel battesimo e nell’eucaristia entra nel corpo di Cristo.

Diventa chiaro allora che a risorgere con il Signore è la sua Chiesa. In questo senso è chiaro che ogni Domenica è la Pasqua del Signore, persino in ogni Eucaristia.

Pasquetta

Perché dunque il lunedì è festivo (pur non essendo più di precetto)? Abbiamo visto che la tradizione allungava il Triduo pasquale nei giorni successivi alla domenica (perdendo così il rapporto con la Cena e la Passione), dando la possibilità di “fare Pasqua”, ovvero l’unica comunione annuale dei laici (fino a Pio X, 1910), fino al martedì. Per questo era significativamente un giorno festivo, un tempo.

Ma in un certo senso ha significato che si mantenga il giorno libero anche oggi: vi rinveniamo anche una motivazione bella. Come il 26 dicembre o il lunedì di Pentecoste tra i germanofoni, le comunità scelsero allora di permettere una celebrazione comoda della Solennità (Natale e Pasqua), senza il problema di ritornare al lavoro il giorno dopo. Abbiamo un Sabato del villaggio che non finisce e non lascia più il posto alla pena.

137 thoughts on “Pasqua o pasquetta? La Pasqua, da tramonto a tramonto

  1. La Resurrezione si attua nella storia ma ci proietta fuori dalla dimensione spazio- temporale, tutto ciò che accade poi è spostato rispetto alle coordinate precedenti, non solo il giorno seguente. In breve, esce dal quotidiano pur standoci dentro.

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