A chi sono rivolte le parole del vangelo? Mt 21, 33-45

In quel tempo, Gesù disse ai capi dei sacerdoti e agli anziani del popolo:
«Ascoltate un’altra parabola: c’era un uomo che possedeva un terreno e vi piantò una vigna. La circondò con una siepe, vi scavò una buca per il torchio e costruì una torre. La diede in affitto a dei contadini e se ne andò lontano.
Quando arrivò il tempo di raccogliere i frutti, mandò i suoi servi dai contadini a ritirare il raccolto. Ma i contadini presero i servi e uno lo bastonarono, un altro lo uccisero, un altro lo lapidarono. Mandò di nuovo altri servi, più numerosi dei primi, ma li trattarono allo stesso modo.
Da ultimo mandò loro il proprio figlio dicendo: “Avranno rispetto per mio figlio!”. Ma i contadini, visto il figlio, dissero tra loro: “Costui è l’erede. Su, uccidiamolo e avremo noi la sua eredità!”. Lo presero, lo cacciarono fuori dalla vigna e lo uccisero.
Quando verrà dunque il padrone della vigna, che cosa farà a quei contadini?».
Gli risposero: «Quei malvagi, li farà morire miseramente e darà in affitto la vigna ad altri contadini, che gli consegneranno i frutti a suo tempo».
E Gesù disse loro: «Non avete mai letto nelle Scritture:
“La pietra che i costruttori hanno scartato
è diventata la pietra d’angolo;
questo è stato fatto dal Signore
ed è una meraviglia ai nostri occhi”?
Perciò io vi dico: a voi sarà tolto il regno di Dio e sarà dato a un popolo che ne produca i frutti».
Udite queste parabole, i capi dei sacerdoti e i farisei capirono che parlava di loro. Cercavano di catturarlo, ma ebbero paura della folla, perché lo considerava un profeta.

Mt 21, 33-45      

Gesù narrò una parabola ai “capi dei sacerdoti e agli anziani del popolo”. Al termine del racconto, “I capi dei sacerdoti e i farisei capirono che parlava di loro”. Così l’evangelista Matteo incornicia le parole di Gesù. Sembra tutto molto lineare: la Parola è rivolta direttamente agli ascoltatori, non parla ad altri o di altri. Prima di entrare nel contenuto specifico del testo, è utile riflettere proprio su questo principio generale: Gesù parla in modo diretto e non dobbiamo commettere l’errore di dover capire a chi si stia rivolgendo!

Parla a noi, parla a me! In un’altra pagina di Vangelo, Pietro chiede a Gesù: “Signore, questa parabola la dici per noi o anche per tutti” (Lc 12,41) ed egli non gli risponde e continua a parlare! Dirottare su altri i passaggi del Vangelo nei quali Gesù invita a convertirsi può essere una seria tentazione. Gesù vuole salvarci dall’intima presunzione di essere giusti (cfr. Lc 18,9) e farci capire che la conversione deve avvenire nel profondo, nell’intimo del cuore. Proviamo dunque a interrogarci: quando ascoltiamo il Vangelo lo sentiamo diretto a noi o ci vengono in mente altri destinatari? Lasciamoci salvare da questo possibile meccanismo!

Ed ora veniamo brevemente al contenuto della parabola di oggi. Gesù entra a Gerusalemme ed è acclamato dalla folla con rami degli alberi, si reca nel tempio, scaccia coloro che comprano e vendono e guarisce gli ammalati. Il giorno dopo torna al tempio ad insegnare e si avvicinano i sommi sacerdoti e gli anziani del popolo, ai quali rivolge alcune parabole con le quali mostra loro di essere consapevole che essi stanno per ucciderlo. La vigna, il regno di Dio, sarà quindi dato ad altri. Gli altri siamo noi: il nuovo Israele, la Chiesa.

Ma è il momento di non cadere nella tentazione che oggi la parabola sia rivolta ad altri! Gesù ci ricorda che dobbiamo portare frutti, se no la vigna sarà affidata ad altri. I capi dei sacerdoti, gli anziani del popolo e i farisei avevano scacciato i servi di Dio, cioè i profeti e addirittura ucciso il Figlio di Dio.

Ci sono profeti oggi che, con parole e opere buone, ci chiedono di portare frutti. Li riconosciamo, li ascoltiamo, ci lasciamo aiutare a convertirci? Che non accada che ci comportiamo come i farisei, che chiudono il regno dei cieli davanti agli uomini: non vi entrano e non lasciano entrare quelli che vogliono entrarci (cfr. Mt 23,13).

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